Theme is defined as a main idea or an underlying meaning of a literary work that may be stated directly or indirectly.
Major and Minor Themes
Major and minor themes are two types of themes that appear in literary works. A major theme is an idea that a writer repeats in his work, making it the most significant idea in a literary work. A minor theme, on the other hand, refers to an idea that appears in a work briefly and gives way to another minor theme. Examples of theme in Jane Austen’s “Pride and Prejudice” are matrimony, love, friendship, and affection. The whole narrative revolves around the major theme of matrimony. Its minor themes are love, friendship, affectation etc.
Difference between a Theme and a Subject
It is important not to confuse a theme of a literary work with its subject. Subject is a topic which acts as a foundation for a literary work while a theme is an opinion expressed on the subject. For example, a writer may choose a subject of war for his story and the theme of a story may be writer’s personal opinion that war is a curse for humanity. Usually, it is up to the readers to explore a theme of a literary work by analyzing characters, plot and other literary devices.
Presentation of Themes
A writer presents themes in a literary work through several ways. A writer may express a theme through the feelings of his main character about the subject he has chosen to write about. Similarly, themes are presented through thoughts and conversations of different characters. Moreover, the experiences of the main character in the course of a literary work give us an idea about its theme. Finally, the actions and events taking place in a narrative are consequential in determining its theme.
Theme Examples in Literature
Love and friendship are frequently occurring themes in literature. They generate emotional twists and turns in a narrative and can lead to a variety of endings: happy, sad or bittersweet. The following are famous literary works with love and friendship themes:
- Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare
- Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte
- Anna Karenina by Leo Tolstoy
- Sense and Sensibility by Jane Austen
- Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen
The theme of war has been explored in literature since ancient times. The literary woks utilizing this theme may either glorify or criticize the idea of war. Most recent literary works portray war as a curse for humanity due to the suffering it inflicts. Some famous examples are:
- Iliad and Odyssey by Homer
- War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy
- Gone with the Wind by Margaret Mitchell
- A Farewell to Arms by Ernest Hemingway
- Arms and the Man by Bernard Shaw
- A Band of Brothers: Stories from Vietnam by Walter McDonald
Crime and mystery are utilized in detective novels. Such narratives also include sub-themes such as “crimes cannot be hidden”, “evil is always punished” etc. Some well-known crime and mystery theme examples are:
- The Murders in the Rue Morgue by Edgar Allan Poe
- Sherlock Holmes by Arthur Conan Doyle
- Bleak House by Charles Dickens
- Murder on the Orient Express by Agatha Christie
- Da Vinci Code by Dan Brown
Revenge is another recurrent theme found in many popular literary works. A character comes across certain circumstances that make him aware of his need for revenge. The outcome of his action is often bitter but sometimes they may end up being satisfied. Examples are:
- Hamlet and Macbeth by William Shakespeare
- The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexander Dumas
- The Girl Who Kicked the Hornet’s Nest by Stieg Larsson
- A Time to Kill by John Grisham
Function of Theme
Theme is an element of a story that binds together various other essential elements of a narrative. It is a truth that exhibits universality and stands true for people of all cultures. Theme gives readers better understanding of the main character’s conflicts, experiences, discoveries and emotions as they are derived from them. Through themes, a writer tries to give his readers an insight into how the world works or how he or she views human life.