A fallacy is an erroneous argument dependent upon an unsound or illogical contention. There are many fallacy examples that we can find in everyday conversations.
Types of Fallacy
Here are a few well-known types of fallacy you might experience when making an argument:
- Appeal to Ignorance
Appeal to ignorance happens when one individual utilizes another individual’s lack of information on a specific subject as proof that his or her own particular argument is right.
- Appeal to Authority
This sort of error is also known as “Argumentum Verecundia” (argument from modesty). Instead of concentrating on the benefits of an argument, the arguer will attempt to append their argument to an individual of power or authority, in an effort to give trustworthiness to their argument.
- Appeal to Popular Opinion
This sort of appeal is when somebody asserts that a thought or conviction is correct, since it is the thing that the general population accepts.
- Association Fallacy
Sometimes called “guilt by affiliation,” this happens when somebody connects a particular thought or issue to something or somebody negative, so as to infer blame on another individual.
- Attacking the Person
- Begging the Question
The conclusion of a contention is accepted as a statement of the inquiry itself.
- Circular Argument
This fallacy is also known as “circulus in probando.” This error is committed when an argument takes its evidence from an element inside the argument itself, instead of from an outside source.
- Relationship Implies Causation
Also called “cum hoc ergo propter hoc,” this fallacy is a deception in which the individual making the contention joins two occasions that happen consecutively, and accepts that one created or caused the other.
Sometimes called “bifurcation,” this sort of error happens when somebody presents their argument in such a way that there are just two conceivable alternatives left.
- Illogical Conclusion
This is a fallacy wherein somebody attests a conclusion that does not follow from the suggestions or facts.
- Slippery Slope
This error happens when one contends that an exceptionally minor movement will unavoidably prompt great and frequently ludicrous conclusions.
- Syllogism Fallacy
This fallacy may also be used to form incorrect conclusions that are odd. Syllogism fallacy is a false argument, as it implies an incorrect conclusion.
Examples of Fallacy in Literature
To understand the different types of fallacy better, let’s review the following examples of fallacy:
Example #1: Appeal to Ignorance
“You can’t demonstrate that there aren’t Martians living in caves on the surface of Mars, so it is sensible for me to accept there are.”
Example #2: Appeal to Authority
“Well, Isaac Newton trusted in Alchemy, do you suppose you know more than Isaac Newton?”
Example #3: Appeal Popular Opinion
“Lots of people purchased this collection, so it must be great.”
Example #4: Association Fallacy
“Hitler was a veggie lover, so I don’t trust vegans.”
Example #5: Attacking the Person
“Don’t listen to Eddie’s contentions on teaching, he’s a simpleton.”
Example #6: Begging the Question
“If the neighbor didn’t take my daily paper, who did?” (This accepts that the daily paper was really stolen).
Example #7: Circular Argument
“I accept that Frosted Flakes are incredible, since it says so on the box.”
Example #8: Relationship Implies Causation
“I saw a jaybird, and ten minutes later I crashed my car. Jaybirds are really bad luck.”
Example #9: False Dilemma/Dichotomy
“If you don’t vote for this applicant, you must be a Communist.”
Example #10: Illogical Conclusion
“All Dubliners are from Ireland. Ronan is not a Dubliner, so clearly he is not Irish.”
Example #11: Slippery Slope
“If we permit gay individuals to get married, what’s next? Permitting people to marry their dogs?”
Example #12: Syllogism Fallacy
“All crows are black, and the bird in my cage is black. So, the bird in my cage is a crow.”
Function of Fallacy
Literary critics find the weaknesses of literary pieces by searching for fallacies within them. Because of this, there is a tendency for critics to distort the intentions of the writer.