Definition of Paronomasia
Paronomasia is a rhetorical device which can be defined as a phrase intentionally used to exploit the confusion between words having similar sounds but different meanings. It is like a word play and is also known as a pun.
Types of Paronomasia
There are two types of paronomasia that are:
Typographic paronomasia is further classified into five categories:
- Homophonic – The use of words that sound the same and have different meanings such as “pour out corruption’s slag from every pore….”
- Homographic – The words that are spelt the same but have different meanings such as “David doesn’t feel well today” and “My uncle is digging a new well….”
- Homonymic – These words include both homographs and homophones.
- Compound – These contain two or more puns in a sentence.
- Recursive – In these, the second part of a pun depends upon the meaning of the first.
These are actually puns and used in non-phonetic texts. Visual paronomasia includes the “4 Pics 1 Word” word game where players are supposed to look at four pictures and guess the word that they are in common.
Examples of Paronomasia from Literature
Paronomasia underscores the expertise of writers and their characters. From Jesus Christ to Shakespeare, examples of paronomasia have been crafted to create rhetorical effect.
Launce: It is no matter if the tied were lost; for it is the unkindest tied that ever any man tied….”
Richard: “Now is the winter of our discontent…made glorious summer by this Son of York….”
(Richard III by William Shakespeare)
William Shakespeare is probably the most renowned punster in literature. Here the word, “tied” is used thrice as homophonic paronomasia, giving different meanings in three different places. Similarly, the word “son” is King Edward IV, not the weather of York.
“When Thou hast done, Thou hast not done for I have more.
That at my death Thy Son
Shall shine as he shines now, and heretofore
And having done that, Thou hast done;
I fear no more.”
(A Hymn to God the Father by John Donne)
In the following excerpt, John Donne has rhymed his name with “done” and his wife’s name Anne More with “more”. The words are underlined. This is an example of homophonic paronomasia.
Mercutio: Nay, gentle Romeo, we must have you dance.
Romeo: Not I, believe me. You have dancing shoes with nimble soles; I have a soul of lead…. So stakes me to the ground I cannot move…”
(Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare)
This extract is again an example of homophonic paronomasia. Shakespeare has exploited the words, “sole” and “soul”. Both sound the same, however, have different meanings, creating comic effect.
“Tickler was a wax-ended piece of cane, worn smooth by collision with my tickled frame.”
(Great Expectations by Charles Dickens)
Here Dickens plays on the word “tickle”. This word is maneuvered in such a way that it gives two different meanings and comic effects.
If you see kay
Tell him he may
See you in tea
Tell him from me –
(Ulysses by James Joyce)
Joyce has included this brief poem with paronomasia words in it. Here, the word “see” is used with the same spelling but different meanings. It is creating humor when spelled out.
Claudius:“…But now, my cousin Hamlet, and my son…..
Hamlet: [aside] “A little more than kin, and less than kind… Not so, my lord, I am too much in the sun……
(Hamlet by William Shakespeare)
Here, Hamlet is distressed that his mother married his uncle which is not allowed in Christianity. The word “kind” is used as a short form of kindred. Shakespeare plays with the meaning of this word “kind”.
Function of Paronomasia
Paronomasia gives thoughtful meanings to literary texts aside from providing humorous and witty comments. Through paronomasia, the writers demonstrate the shrewdness of characters and their own ingenuity by playing with the words. Besides, in literary works, paronomasia functions as a purposeful effort of the writers to provide a source of comic relief to show their artistic ability. Being a source of fun, paronomasia is used in comedy theaters and jokes give humorous meanings to perplexing stories. Also, it is found in limerick forms of poetry.