Pastiche is a literary piece that imitates another famous literary work of another writer. Unlike parody, its purpose is not to mock but to honor the literary piece it imitates.
This literary device is generally employed to imitate a piece of literary work light-heartedly but in a respectful manner. The term pastiche also applies to a literary work that is a wide mixture of items such as themes, concepts and characters imitated from different literary works. For instance, many of the pastiche examples are in the form of detective novels that are written in fashion of the original stories of “Sherlock Holmes”. It features either “Sherlock Holmes” or a main character like him.
Pastiche Examples in Literature
“Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead” is a tragicomedy written by Tom Stoppard. It is one of the best examples of pastiche. It develops upon two minor characters: “Rosencrantz” and “Guildenstern.” These characters appear for a brief moment in Shakespeare’s “Hamlet”. The title is taken from Hamlet’s Act 5, Scene 3 when a an ambassador from England announces, “Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead.” The two characters, standing behind the curtains, express their confusion on the vents of the main play “Hamlet” enacted of the stage.
David Lodge’s comic novel “The British Museum Is Falling Down” contains imitations of ten different novelists. He gives reference to that particular writer in the text before he starts imitating their style. For example in chapter 3, “Adam Appleby”, hero of the novel, was riding his scooter and gets stuck in the traffic on his way to the British Museum Library. He tells us about “Mrs. Dalloway’s booming out the half hour” ( a reference to Virginia Woolf’s novel “Mrs. Dalloway”). Then, we get to read a passage that comically imitates Woolf’s style:
“It partook, he thought, shifting his weight in the saddle, of metempsychosis, the way his humble life fell into moulds prepared by literature. Or was it, he wondered, picking his nose, the result of closely studying the sentence structure of the English novelists? One had resigned oneself to having no private language any more, but one had clung wistfully to the illusion of a personal property of events. A find and fruitless illusion, it seemed, for here, inevitably came the limousine, with its Very Important Personage, or Personages, dimly visible in the interior. The policeman saluted, and the crowd pressed forward, murmuring ‘Philip’, ‘Tony’, ‘Margaret’, ‘Prince Andrew’.”
We see the merging of the outer and inner realities in the passage that is so typical of Virginia Woolf especially the induction of the reporting clauses “he thought” and “he wondered” in the middle of the reported clauses.
Dave McClure’s poem “The Traveler” is a comical imitation written after Edgar Alan Poe’s poem “The Raven”. Look at McClure’s opening stanza:
“Long ago upon a hilltop (let me finish then I will stop)
I espied a curious traveler where no traveler was before.
As I raised an arm in greeting all at once he took to beating
at the air like one entreating passing boats to come ashore
like a castaway repeating empty movements from the shore
or an over-eager whore.”
It keenly imitates the arrangement of words used by Poe in the original poem. Likewise, it echoes the same rhyming scheme as well. Read the opening lines from Poe’s “The Raven” for a better comparison:
“Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary,
Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore,
While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,
As of someone gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door.
“‘Tis some visitor,” I muttered, “tapping at my chamber door –
Only this, and nothing more.”
The only remarkable difference between the two poems that we can recognize is the serious tone of the original poem contrasts the humorous tone of the imitation.
Function of Pastiche
Pastiche may be comic in its content but it does not mock the original works. In pastiche, the writers imitate the style and content of a literary piece to highlight their work as the original piece is accepted by the vast majority of readers and are landmarks of their age. So, imitation in such works celebrates the works of the great writers of the past.