Definition of Prosthesis
Prosthesis is a literary device that involves the addition of an extra sound or syllable to the beginning of a word that helps in making it easier to pronounce. Since the meaning of this word is “to put before”, therefore, an additional syllable or sound is placed at the beginning of a word which helps in highlighting it. It can be understood from the following example; “Old fond eyes, beweep this cause again….” (King Lear by William Shakespeare). Here, Shakespeare adds be- (an extra syllable) at the beginning of the word weep and makes it beweep.
Difference between Aphaearesis, Apocope and Prosthesis
Aphaearesis and apocope are opposites of prosthesis. In aphaearesis, an unaccented or accented syllable is removed from the front of a word to create a new phrase or term. Like, “the king hath cause to plain.” (King Lear by William Shakespeare). Here, Shakespeare has deleted the initial syllable of the word “complain”, which is changed into the word “plain”; whereas, apocope is the removal of a letter or syllable at the end of a word. An example is in the following lines, “when I ope my lips let no dog bar” (The Merchant of Venice by William Shakespeare).
On the other hand, prosthesis is adding an additional letter or syllable to the front of a word. Like, “Touchstone: I remember, when I was in love I broke my sword upon a stone and bid him take that for coming a-night to Jane Smile.” (As You Like It by William Shakespeare). In these lines, an extra letter “a” is added to word “night”.
Examples of Prosthesis from Literature
Prospero: “I have bedimm’d the noontide sun….
(Tempest by William Shakespeare)
This extract is an example of prosthesis. Here, a word “bedimm’d” gives a poetic touch to a piece of prose by adding “be” at the front. This is among the prosthesis examples that turn an ordinary word into something unique and give rhythmic effect to a text.
I all alone beweep my outcast state…
(Sonnet 29 by William Shakespeare)
This is one of the popular examples of prosthesis in literature where Shakespeare could have used weep instead of beweep. However, he uses prosthesis because this expression matches the meter and creates a great poetic effect.
Thus much let me avow–
You are not wrong, who deem
That my days have been a dream;
Yet if hope has flown away
(A Dream Within a Dream by Edgar Allan Poe)
In the excerpt, Poe adds a syllable at the beginning of the word “vow”. He added the letter “a” to make the literary piece more rhythmic.
Tearing of papers, breaking rings a-twain,
Storming her world with sorrow’s wind and rain.
(A Lover’s Complaint by William Shakespeare)
Shakespeare widely used prosthesis in his works such as in this extract, a letter “a” is included in the beginning of the word “twain” to put an emphasis on it.
Yet first to those ychain’d in sleep,
The wakefull trump of doom must thunder through the deep….
(On the Morning of Christ’s Nativity by John Milton)
In this passage, Milton added an extra sound or letter to the word “chain’d” and transformed it into “ychain’d”. This gives the piece a heightened poetic and rhythmic effect.
What though that light, thro’ storm and night,
So trembled from afar–
What could there be more purely bright
In Truth’s day-star?
(A Dream by Edgar Allan Poe)
This is another good example of prosthesis in which Poe adds a syllable “a” to the word “far”. The purpose of this device is to give a perfect rhythmic effect to this extract, and highlight the importance of this particular word in a given context.
Function of Prosthesis
The main function of this device is to create a poetic effect in a piece of writing and lay emphasis on a particular word. It is a rhetorical strategy of highlighting a point or idea in a text or speech. Since the altered word is employed with additional sound at its beginning, it draws focus and attention of readers by slowing the pace of text a bit. Frequently, it is used in prose for poetic and humorous effects and in poetry for rhythmic effect, and in everyday conversations and political speeches for emphasis.