Definition of Litotes
Litotes is a figure of speech featuring a phrase that utilizes negative wording or terms to express a positive assertion or statement. Litotes is a common literary device, most often used in speech, rhetoric, and nonfiction. As a figure of speech, the meaning of litotes is not literal. Instead, litotes is intended to be a form of understatement by using negation to express the contrary meaning. This is a clever use of language in its combination of negative terms as a function to express a positive sentiment or statement.
Litotes is a device used to state an affirmative without direct use of affirmative wording. For example, the phrase “I don’t hate it” reflects use of litotes. In this case, juxtaposing the negative words “don’t” and “hate” function together to indicate the opposite meaning or affirmative. In saying “I don’t hate it,” the speaker is actually affirming the sentiment “I like it.” However, since the speaker does not directly say “I like it,” the affirmation is mitigated and downplayed. The use of litotes in this case reflects the speaker’s intention to state a positive without directly affirming it or being too complimentary. Instead of expressing “like” for something, litotes in this case expresses an absence of hate.
Common Examples of Litotes
Litotes is commonly used as an understatement or ironic figure of speech. It is a successful device in that it affirms a positive statement or sentiment typically through the use of double negatives. Here are some common examples of litotes you may find in everyday conversation:
- The novel is not bad.
- You’re not wrong.
- I can’t disagree with your logic.
- My feelings are not unhurt.
- He is hardly unattractive.
- That lesson is not hard.
- My car was not cheap.
- I won’t argue with the referee.
- Visiting family is not uncommon.
- The results are not inaccurate.
- That compliment is not unwelcome.
- I can’t turn down that offer.
- The weather is not unpleasant.
- His answer was hardly a whisper.
- Her decision is not the worst.
- The test came back not negative.
- That dress is not unlike mine.
- I can’t say that I won’t try the dessert.
- Your effort has not gone unnoticed.
Examples of Litotes in Rhetoric
Litotes is a common device used in rhetoric. This is primarily because it prompts a listener or reader to carefully consider what is being said. Litotes also allows the speaker or writer to effectively communicate in an atypical way. Here are some examples of litotes in rhetoric (speeches and nonfiction writing):
- Indeed, it is not uncommon for slaves even to fall out and quarrel among themselves about the relative goodness of their masters, each contending for the superior goodness of his own over that of the others. (Frederick Douglass)
- Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, concerned citizens can change world. Indeed it is the only thing that ever has. (Margaret Mead)
- A designer knows he or she has achieved perfection, not when there is nothing left to add, but when there is nothing left to take away. (Nolan Haims)
- I do not speak of what I cannot praise. (Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe)
- He who wants to persuade should put his trust not in the right argument, but in the right word. The power of sound has always been greater than the power of sense. (Joseph Conrad
- The problem with speeches isn’t so much not knowing when to stop, as knowing when not to begin. (Frances Rodman)
- My father had three wives. Polygamy was not uncommon in that country, especially among the rich, as every man was allowed to keep as many wives as he could maintain. (Venture Smith)
Famous Examples of Litotes in Disney Movie Lines
Many Disney films contain lines that make use of litotes as a figure of speech to emphasize a positive or showcase understatement through using double negative phrasing. This causes the audience to ponder the actual meaning of the statement. Here are some famous examples of litotes in Disney movie lines:
- This is no ordinary lamp! (Disney’s Aladdin)
- Now, Pooh was not the sort to give up easily. (Disney’s The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh)
- Sometimes the right path is not the easiest one. (Disney’s Pocahontas)
- Success doesn’t come for free. (Disney’s Coco)
- He’s no Prince Charming. (Disney’s Beauty and the Beast)
Writers often utilize figures of speech to create a specific effect for the reader. As a figure of speech, litotes resembles understatement due to the fact that the intended meaning of the phrase or sentence seems less significant through negative wording. In this way, litotes serve a purpose for writers as method for expressing modesty, discretion, or verbal irony by making a statement about what “is” by stating what “is not.”
Proper Use of Double Negatives
When creating litotes, it’s important for writers to understand the proper use of double negatives. Essentially litotes is similar to a double negative in the sense that it features juxtaposition of negative terms to express a positive. However, double negatives are often considered improper or incorrect grammar. As a literary device, litotes does not feature incorrect or improper grammar. As a result, writers can effectively use litotes as a means of expressing understatement to their readers through a form of double negative. However, it must be grammatically correct.
Overuse of Litotes
Like any figure of speech or literary device, it’s important for writers to not overuse litotes. Incorporating frequent litotes can be distracting, tiresome, and repetitious for a reader. This results in a loss of effectiveness for this form of figurative language.
Litotes and Verbal Irony
Although litotes is also verbal irony, it is a specific type of irony. In verbal irony, a statement expresses something that is contrary to what it actually is. Only the audience could understand that meaning. However, in a simple irony, it could be understandable for all, but litotes has specific impacts on the intended or target audience.
Difference between Meiosis and Litotes
Meiosis has euphemistic undertones in its understatement, it differs from litotes. Litotes has underlying ironic impacts. Therefore, both seem opposite to each other, though both are similar in that both are understatements where one is euphemistic and the other is ironic.
Difference between Understatement and Litotes
An understatement is used to minimize the significance of something or belittle it from what it actually seems. However, litotes involves expressing positive or affirmative things from a negative angle. This involves the use of verbal irony such as Oedipus states that he is not sleeping and the people are not waking him which means that he is quite alert and not sleeping. It has clear undertones of irony lurking in the double negative, a hallmark of litotes.
Difference between Hyperbole and Litotes
Hyperbole and litotes are two contradictory terms. However, there could be one thing in common that is irony. Whereas irony is clear in hyperbole as the audiences clearly understand that what is stated is not actually the same, in litotes, it is worded in a twisting manner through the use of a double negative. Therefore, it is something hidden behind those double negatives that strain the audiences when they think over it. Both are contrary in that whereas hyperbole is an exaggeration, litotes is an understatement with ironic undertones.
Use of Litotes in Sentences
- You are not waking me and I am not sleeping.
- Whether you are do not do it, it is already not done.
- We cannot agree on not sharing every photo with every person.
- John looks calm but he’s not the friendliest person in the family.
- Stop rushing me, this is not exactly a walk in the park.
Examples of Litotes in Literature
Litotes is not utilized frequently as a literary device in literature. However, it is featured in some important literary works as a means of gaining a reader’s attention and expressing meaning in an understated way. Here are some examples of litotes in literature and the way they influence the meaning of the literary work:
Example 1: Sonnet 116 “Let me not to the marriage of true minds” by William Shakespeare
Let me not to the marriage of true mindsAdmit impediments. Love is not loveWhich alters when it alteration finds,Or bends with the remover to remove.O no! it is an ever-fixed markThat looks on tempests and is never shaken;It is the star to every wand’ring bark,Whose worth’s unknown, although his height be taken.Love’s not Time’s fool, though rosy lips and cheeksWithin his bending sickle’s compass come;Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks,But bears it out even to the edge of doom.If this be error and upon me prov’d,I never writ, nor no man ever lov’d.
Example 2: The Prelude: Book 1: Childhood and School-time by William Wordsworth
Not seldom from the uproar I retiredInto a silent bay, or sportivelyGlanced sideway, leaving the tumultuous throng,To cut across the image of a starThat gleam’d upon the ice
Example 3: The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock by T.S. Eliot
i am no prophet — and here’s no great matter;I have seen the moment of my greatness flicker,And I have seen the eternal Footman hold my coat, and snicker,And in short, I was afraid.
Example 4: Beowulf
Most gracious Hrothgar,
do not refuse them, but grant them a reply.
From their arms and appointment, they appear well born
and worthy of respect, especially the one
who has led them this far: he is formidable indeed. (365-370)
When they joined the struggle
there was something they could not have known at the time,
that no blade on earth, no blacksmith’s art
could ever damage their demon opponent. (799-802)
This was not the first time
it had been called to perform heroic feats. (1463-1464)
These three examples occur in Beowulf translated by Seamus Heaney. The first litotes occur in the first line where Hrothgar is addressed with a single negative but it does not seem that there is an irony. However, this statement is suggestive that “do not refuse” means he should rather grant them and repetition of the same in affirmation is an expression of full affirmation. The second one has double negatives as it shows that the swords are matchless and the third one has also a single negative but expresses an affirmative action. Whereas the second has an undertone of irony, it is somewhat slight or quite subtle in the first and the second example.
Example 4: Hamlet by Shakespeare
Horatio says ’tis but our fantasy,
And will not let belief take hold of him
Touching this dreaded sight, twice seen of us. (1.1.17)
In what particular thought to work I know not,
But in the gross and scope of mine opinion
This bodes some strange eruption to our state. (1.1.58)
He hath not failed to pester us with message
Importing the surrender of those lands
Lost by his father, with all bands of law,
To our most valiant brother. (1.2.12)
What wouldst thou beg Laertes,
That shall not be my offer, not thy asking?
The head is not more native to the heart,
The hand more instrumental to the mouth,
Than is the throne of Denmark to thy father.
What wouldst thou have Laertes? (1.2.64)
Good Hamlet cast thy nighted colour off,
And let thine eye look like a friend on Denmark.
Do not forever with thy vailèd lids
Seek for thy noble father in the dust. (1.2.65)
These litotes occur in different parts of Hamlet by William Shakespeare. Although there may not be double negatives and may not have equal stress of ironic remarks, all of them suggest an affirmative action with a single or double negative such as the first, second and third have a single negative, while the third has a double negative. The last one also has a single negative but its irony is strong.
Example 5: To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee
Mindful of John Wesley’s strictures on the use of many words in buying and selling, Simon made a pile practicing medicine, but in this pursuit he was unhappy lest he be tempted into doing what he knew was not for the glory of God, as the putting on of gold and costly apparel. (p. 5)
Jem was not one to dwell on past defeats: it seemed the only message he got from Atticus was insight into the art of cross examination. “Scout, we ain’t gonna do anything, we’re just goin‘ to the street light and back.” (p. 49)
It’s not like he’d never speak to you again or somethin‘… I’m gonna wake him up, Jem, I swear I am—” (p. 54)
“It’s not necessary to tell all you know. It’s not ladylike—in the second place, folks don’t like to have somebody around knowin‘ more than they do. It aggravates ’em. You’re not gonna change any of them by talkin‘ right, they’ve got to want to learn themselves, and when they don’t want to learn there’s nothing you can do but keep your mouth shut or talk their language.” (p. 115)
These examples have been taken from Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird. In all these examples, even if a negative has occurred once, the irony is quite clear due to the use of understatements. The first one shows this as well as the second one, while the third one is clearly ironic as it has a double negative. However, the last one is full of negatives with full use of ironic understatement.
Synonyms of Litotes
Some of the terms that are closest to litotes in meanings are reserve, subtlety, understatement, underemphasis, underplaying, trivialization, understatedness, and euphemism. However, it must be kept in mind that no term could replace it in the same meanings and that every term is a separate literary device in its own way.