The horror! The horror!

Origin of The horror! The horror!

This phrase is found in Joseph Conrad’s “Heart of Darkness.” This is the final judgment of Kurtz on his own life, actions, and generally on humankind and imperialism, when in part three of the story he says, “The horror! The horror!” Through this line, Kurtz also points out his fate, which looks profoundly affected by the events he faces during his escapade to the Congo.

Meaning of The horror! The horror!

Many critics have raised questions about the interpretation of this phrase. Generally, it implies the horror Kurtz witnesses in Africa, though the horror could be the exploitation of Africa, evil practices of humans, his crumbling sanity, or an illusion of understanding and hope. Simply, it conveys what the West did during colonization in the name of progress, and under the guise of civilizing the natives. Darkness prevails when he dies, symbolizing that his actions were evil. Thus, it is Kurtz’s realization of the bitter and absolute truth of his life.

Usage of The horror! The horror!

The use of this phrase is not common in everyday life. However, you may find it in literary texts and movies. You would notice, wherever this line appears, it conveys the meanings of threat, evil deeds, fear of evil actions, or pointing out an alarming situation, such as if someone or something catches fire, foreign invaders come, or a war breaks out.

Literary Source of The horror! The horror!

Kurtz speaks this line as his final words in Conrad’s novellaHeart of Darkness.” Marlowe describes how he utters the final words:

“Anything approaching the change that came over his features I have never seen before, and hope never to see again. He cried in a whisper at some image, at some vision—he cried out twice, a cry that was no more than a breath: “‘The horror! The horror!”

(Part III, Page 12)

During his time spent in Africa, Kurtz becomes corrupt and writes the words “Exterminate all the brutes!” Here he refers to his own and his comrade’s brutality in Africa, which was carried out in the name of progress and civilization. He induced native Africans to worship and adore him, and set up rituals worthy of a brute or a tyrant. Therefore, by the end Kurtz reflects on his life, which is basically flashing before his eyes in the last moment, allowing readers to think about the meanings of “the horror.”

Literary Analysis of The horror! The horror!

The narrative comes to an end when we find Marlowe and Kurtz moving back to England, meaning they are returning to “civilization” from Africa. Kurtz is not stable mentally or physically, slowly succumbing to death on his boat. When he realizes he is near death, he utters this phrase, which carries deep meaning, as his last words. In fact, he refers to all things witnessed and done throughout his stay in the Congo.

It tells us the experiences, and brutality of Europeans, which Marlowe has seen through his eyes. It also sums up the experiences and deep-rooted evils in the hearts of civilized people. Their hostility makes them blind to their surroundings. In addition, the ultimate downfall of Kurtz was due to his own evil actions during his years spent in the Congo for the European Company.

Literary Devices

  • Symbolism: Phrase symbolizes the frightening reaction and fearful utterance after witnessing evil acts.