The Death of the Hired Man
by Robert Frost
Mary sat musing on the lamp-flame at the table
Waiting for Warren. When she heard his step,
She ran on tip-toe down the darkened passage
To meet him in the doorway with the news
And put him on his guard. ‘Silas is back.’
She pushed him outward with her through the door
And shut it after her. ‘Be kind,’ she said.
She took the market things from Warren’s arms
And set them on the porch, then drew him down
To sit beside her on the wooden steps.
‘When was I ever anything but kind to him?
But I’ll not have the fellow back,’ he said.
‘I told him so last haying, didn’t I?
If he left then, I said, that ended it.
What good is he? Who else will harbor him
At his age for the little he can do?
What help he is there’s no depending on.
Off he goes always when I need him most.
He thinks he ought to earn a little pay,
Enough at least to buy tobacco with,
So he won’t have to beg and be beholden.
“All right,” I say, “I can’t afford to pay
Any fixed wages, though I wish I could.”
“Someone else can.” “Then someone else will have to.”
I shouldn’t mind his bettering himself
If that was what it was. You can be certain,
When he begins like that, there’s someone at him
Trying to coax him off with pocket-money,—
In haying time, when any help is scarce.
In winter he comes back to us. I’m done.’
‘Sh! not so loud: he’ll hear you,’ Mary said.
‘I want him to: he’ll have to soon or late.’
‘He’s worn out. He’s asleep beside the stove.
When I came up from Rowe’s I found him here,
Huddled against the barn-door fast asleep,
A miserable sight, and frightening, too—
You needn’t smile—I didn’t recognize him—
I wasn’t looking for him—and he’s changed.
Wait till you see.’
‘Where did you say he’d been?’
‘He didn’t say. I dragged him to the house,
And gave him tea and tried to make him smoke.
I tried to make him talk about his travels.
Nothing would do: he just kept nodding off.’
‘What did he say? Did he say anything?’
‘Anything? Mary, confess
He said he’d come to ditch the meadow for me.’
‘But did he? I just want to know.’
‘Of course he did. What would you have him say?
Surely you wouldn’t grudge the poor old man
Some humble way to save his self-respect.
He added, if you really care to know,
He meant to clear the upper pasture, too.
That sounds like something you have heard before?
Warren, I wish you could have heard the way
He jumbled everything. I stopped to look
Two or three times—he made me feel so queer—
To see if he was talking in his sleep.
He ran on Harold Wilson—you remember—
The boy you had in haying four years since.
He’s finished school, and teaching in his college.
Silas declares you’ll have to get him back.
He says they two will make a team for work:
Between them they will lay this farm as smooth!
The way he mixed that in with other things.
He thinks young Wilson a likely lad, though daft
On education—you know how they fought
All through July under the blazing sun,
Silas up on the cart to build the load,
Harold along beside to pitch it on.’
‘Yes, I took care to keep well out of earshot.’
‘Well, those days trouble Silas like a dream.
You wouldn’t think they would. How some things linger!
Harold’s young college boy’s assurance piqued him.
After so many years he still keeps finding
Good arguments he sees he might have used.
I sympathize. I know just how it feels
To think of the right thing to say too late.
Harold’s associated in his mind with Latin.
He asked me what I thought of Harold’s saying
He studied Latin like the violin
Because he liked it—that an argument!
He said he couldn’t make the boy believe
He could find water with a hazel prong—
Which showed how much good school had ever done him.
He wanted to go over that. But most of all
He thinks if he could have another chance
To teach him how to build a load of hay—’
‘I know, that’s Silas’ one accomplishment.
He bundles every forkful in its place,
And tags and numbers it for future reference,
So he can find and easily dislodge it
In the unloading. Silas does that well.
He takes it out in bunches like big birds’ nests.
You never see him standing on the hay
He’s trying to lift, straining to lift himself.’
‘He thinks if he could teach him that, he’d be
Some good perhaps to someone in the world.
He hates to see a boy the fool of books.
Poor Silas, so concerned for other folk,
And nothing to look backward to with pride,
And nothing to look forward to with hope,
So now and never any different.’
Part of a moon was falling down the west,
Dragging the whole sky with it to the hills.
Its light poured softly in her lap. She saw it
And spread her apron to it. She put out her hand
Among the harp-like morning-glory strings,
Taut with the dew from garden bed to eaves,
As if she played unheard some tenderness
That wrought on him beside her in the night.
‘Warren,’ she said, ‘he has come home to die:
You needn’t be afraid he’ll leave you this time.’
‘Home,’ he mocked gently.
‘Yes, what else but home?
It all depends on what you mean by home.
Of course he’s nothing to us, any more
Than was the hound that came a stranger to us
Out of the woods, worn out upon the trail.’
‘Home is the place where, when you have to go there,
They have to take you in.’
‘I should have called it
Something you somehow haven’t to deserve.’
Warren leaned out and took a step or two,
Picked up a little stick, and brought it back
And broke it in his hand and tossed it by.
‘Silas has better claim on us you think
Than on his brother? Thirteen little miles
As the road winds would bring him to his door.
Silas has walked that far no doubt today.
Why didn’t he go there? His brother’s rich,
A somebody—director in the bank.’
‘He never told us that.’
‘We know it though.’
‘I think his brother ought to help, of course.
I’ll see to that if there is need. He ought of right
To take him in, and might be willing to—
He may be better than appearances.
But have some pity on Silas. Do you think
If he’d had any pride in claiming kin
Or anything he looked for from his brother,
He’d keep so still about him all this time?’
‘I wonder what’s between them.’
‘I can tell you.
Silas is what he is—we wouldn’t mind him—
But just the kind that kinsfolk can’t abide.
He never did a thing so very bad.
He don’t know why he isn’t quite as good
As anyone. Worthless though he is,
He won’t be made ashamed to please his brother.’
‘I can’t think Si ever hurt anyone.’
‘No, but he hurt my heart the way he lay
And rolled his old head on that sharp-edged chair-back.
He wouldn’t let me put him on the lounge.
You must go in and see what you can do.
I made the bed up for him there tonight.
You’ll be surprised at him—how much he’s broken.
His working days are done; I’m sure of it.’
‘I’d not be in a hurry to say that.’
‘I haven’t been. Go, look, see for yourself.
But, Warren, please remember how it is:
He’s come to help you ditch the meadow.
He has a plan. You mustn’t laugh at him.
He may not speak of it, and then he may.
I’ll sit and see if that small sailing cloud
Will hit or miss the moon.’
It hit the moon.
Then there were three there, making a dim row,
The moon, the little silver cloud, and she.
Warren returned—too soon, it seemed to her,
Slipped to her side, caught up her hand and waited.
‘Warren,’ she questioned.
‘Dead,’ was all he answered.
Summary of The Death of the Hired Man
- Popularity of “The Death of the Hired Man”: This poem is written by Robert Frost, a great American poet. “The Death of the Hired Man” is a long narrative poem about death and the subsequent guilt. It was first published in 1914. The poem speaks about a poor ex-employee who left his owners at an inappropriate time, making a return during his miserable condition. It also illustrates how the cold response of his master becomes the reason for his death. The poem also talks about forgiveness and the impact of power.
- “The Death of the Hired Man” As a Representative of Death: The poem accounts for the unfortunate death of a poor man, who dies helplessly at his master’s farm. The poem begins with the conversation of a rural couple; the wife, Mary, tells her husband, Warren, that their ex-worker has returned, asking for forgiveness. Mary wants her husband to forgive the poor farmhand, whereas Warren does not want to take him back, as he always has disappointed them.
Mary constantly tries to convince her husband, saying Silas is in a miserable stat and has come to us to die. Since Warren has not seen Silas during his illness, he is still angry over the commitment Silas broke in the past. He simply does not want to give him a second chance to a man who has already broken his trust. The lady, on the other hand, does not give up, and eventually convinces her husband to take the poor man in. Unfortunately, when Warren goes to receive Silas, he is already dead. The poet wants to convey that one should forgive others in time.
- Major Themes in “The Death of the Hired Man”: Power, death, forgiveness, and guilt are the major themes of this poem. The poem revolves around the subject of a poor farmhand who broke his contract in the past and left his master’s farm in the time of need. Agitated, he makes a return, but his authoritative master refuses to accept him. However, the kind lady takes pity on his miserable condition and convinces her husband to let go of the things he had once done. Unfortunately, the master takes too much time to decide the fate of his ex-employee; he dies helplessly in the farm. Guilt remains the core of the poem. The poor man perhaps comes back because of the guilt that he had been dishonest to his masters in the past. When he intends to rectify his error, the authoritative nature of mankind hinders his way. Warren, on the other hand, also remains guilt-ridden when he finds the man dead in his property.
Analysis of Literary Devices in “The Death of the Hired Man”
Literary devices are tools that represent the writers’ ideas, feelings, and emotions. The writers use these devices to make their words appealing to the readers. Robert Frost has also used plenty of literary devices in this poem. The analysis of some of the literary devices used in this poem has been given below.
- Assonance: Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds in the same line. For example, the sound of /e/ in “And set them on the porch, then drew him down” and the sound of /oo/ in “And nothing to look backward to with pride”.
- Alliteration: Alliteration is the repetition of consonant sounds in the same line in quick succession. There are plenty of alliterations in this narrative poem. For example, the sound of /w/ in “Waiting for Warren. When she heard his step”, the sound of /th/ in “When he begins like that, there’s someone at him” and the sound of /l/ “He studied Latin like the violin”.
- Enjambment: It is defined as a thought in verse that does not come to an end at a line break; instead, it rolls over to the next line. For example;
“Silas has better claim on us you think
Than on his brother? Thirteen little miles
As the road winds would bring him to his door.”
- Imagery: Imagery is used to make readers perceive things involving their five senses. For example, “She took the market things from Warren’s arms”, “Slipped to her side, caught up her hand and waited” and “I’ll sit and see if that small sailing cloud.”
- Rhetorical Question: Rhetorical question is a question that is not asked in order to receive an answer; it is just posed to make the point clear. For example, “‘Yes, what else but home?”, “‘Of course he did. What would you have him say?” and “That sounds like something you have heard before?”
- Symbolism: Symbolism is using symbols to signify ideas and qualities, giving them symbolic meanings that are different from the literal meanings. Death of the poor man symbolizes the dark aspect of human nature or lack of forgiveness by themselves or the other person.
Analysis of Poetic Devices in “The Death of the Hired Man”
Poetic and literary devices are the same, but a few are used only in poetry. Here is the analysis of some of the poetic devices used in this poem.
- Free Verse: Free verse is a type of poetry that does not contain patterns of rhyme or meter. This is a free-verse poem with no strict rhyme or meter
- Stanza: A stanza is a poetic form of some lines. There are nineteen stanzas in this poem, with each having a different number of verses in it.
Quotes to be Used
The lines stated below are useful to describe the hard work of the people who work even in the scorching sun to make both ends meet.
“All through July under the blazing sun,
Silas up on the cart to build the load,
Harold along beside to pitch it on.’”